Chateau d'Armailhac finds evidence of its foundation in a land register from 1680, listing the brothers, Dominque and Guilhem Armailhacq as owners of several parcels of land in Pauillac. A later ledger from 1750 adds a note describing that the family estate is now "planted with vines" covering 15-16 hectares. By 1800, the estate then named Chateau Mouton d'Armailhacq covers 52 hectares and incredible hard work is undertaken to improve the wine quality from "disappointingly thin" to Fifth Growth status in 1855.
In 1934, Baron Philippe de Rothschild is practically the owner of the estate after he carefully buys up more and more shares. He names it Chateau Mouton Baron Philippe in 1956, though after his death in 1988, Baroness Philippine, his daughter, partially restores the historical name, Chateau d'Armailhac.
The vineyard at Chateau d'Armailhac has its 70 hectares planted to 52% Cabernet Sauvignon, 36% Merlot, 10% Cabernet Franc, and 2% Petit Verdot. Average vine age is 46 years and an impressive 20% dates back to 1890.